Inclusive Pedagogy – Moving past privilege and bias toward a more inclusive climate

Before we begin, I want to break down the differences between privilege, bias, and racism.whitePrivilege
Privilege (n): a right, immunity, or benefit enjoyed only by a person (or group of people) beyond the advantages of most.check-your-privilege Below are a just a few examples – one of male privilege that I have encountered through my research in transportation safety. The other, I was less aware of until recently.
The Automotive Industry – Male Privilege
Seat belts are less safe for women (like by a lot) – When safety regulations were originally imposed on automakers in the 1960’s regulators wanted to require the use of two crash test dummies, a 95 percentile male and a 5 percentile female meaning that only 5% of men were larger than and 5% of women were smaller than the crash test dummies. Automakers pushed back on regulators until the requirement was reduced to a single crash test dummy, a 50 percentile male (the average man). Women drivers were far more likely to be severely injured than male drivers in crashes due to seat belts. Since 2011, female crash test dummies have been required in safety testing, so we’re moving forward but we have been working with 50 years of dangerous design practice in the automobile industry.

The Cosmetics Industry – White Privilege
I’ve never had an issue finding band aids that match my skin tone (unless I’m at a friend’s house who has children, then its Elsa or bust, baby). [Additional info here]
 Bias
Bias (n): prejudice in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair.
Explicit bias occurs at a conscious level. Expressions of explicit of bias (discrimination, hate speech, etc.) occur as the result of deliberate thought. Thus, they can be consciously regulated. People are more motivated to control their biases if there are social norms in place which dictate that prejudice is not socially acceptable.
Implicit biases however are inescapable – everyone possesses them. The implicit associations we hold do not necessarily align with our outward beliefs or reflect what we endorse. We generally tend to hold favor toward our own “ingroup” though research has shown we can hold implicit biases (and interestingly in some cases explicit biases) against our own ingroup. The good news and bad news is that implicit biases are malleable – we can unlearn implicit associations we have formed through, though in some cases new biases can be developed over time and exposure.but

institutionalized

Institutional/Systemic Racism (Discrimination)
 Systematic racism – Systemic racism occurs when the way a society is structured systematically ends up giving advantages to some and disadvantages to others.
Systemic racism is something we can see every day – consider the following;bntsg

table_socialissues
Systemic Racism in Higher Education
This is a fantastic article on institutional racism in higher education [here] you should read the checklist and see how many your favorite universities check off. I know one of mine is pretty high up on the list as demonstrated below – someday I’ll get to addressing the other offices at Tech, but this example will do nicely for now.

tech_presidents

Presidents of Virginia Tech 1872 – Present

Now – I’m sure that by and large our past presidents have been lovely men (here’s lookin’ at you Sands!) but the fact of the matter is, they’re all “mature”, Caucasian, males in charge of this university. How would the mission of the university change if the face of Virginia Tech were a woman? A person of color? I suppose a homosexual woman of color with a physical disability would be completely out of the question, but what if? I bet faculty and staff would be getting more useful training that WebEx versions of Title IX and COI training that’s for sure. Follow on question – what if we had more empathetic leaders? Leaders who were willing to put themselves in to the shoes of the folks who are living, learning, and working here – it’s not too hard to imagine all it takes is consideration and a question,  “What can WE do?”
“What can we do to create a more inclusive environment for our students?”
“What can we do so that all of our students feel safe on campus?”

Creating an Inclusive Environment in the Classroom and the Universitywhite-privilege-9Be aware and understanding
Be understanding of the needs of your students. If you should make yourself aware of the holidays and practices of religious groups. For example being hungry really stinks (Snickers said it best, “you’re not you when you’re hungry”) but it’s one of the main components several observed religious days of multiple groups. So it is important to be considerate of the changes in demeanor. If I had to get up super early to pray and couldn’t drink coffee, I’d probably crash pretty hard in my own class too. This requires educating yourself a little bit, but we tend to cater toward a special kind of privilege with regard to the holidays we celebrate in academia (and with regard to the American government as a whole), but again, educating yourself will help to mitigate any implicit bias. Check this calendar out from University of Missouri, THIS IS WHAT I’M TALKING ABOUT!

Encourage discussion
In the design of systems we have to ultimately consider the user. For example – speech recognition systems are inherently horrible (with command prompts, etc.) particularly for people with accents. If you start dropping non-American slang into the SI forget about it. From a human factors perspective it would be a fantastic discussion point to bring up issues everyone has had with these systems (or any system in general) and how the designer could have been more inclusive in their design.

Encourage the use of “I statements” over “You statements”
This one may have come from many years in therapy, but hear me out. “You statements” are typically the way we communicate (e.g. “you are no help at all”, “you are insensitive”, “you are a bigot”). These statements are typically not well received and do not offer the receiving individual any grey area or time to reflect. You’re placing them immediately in an “I am right, you are wrong” situation. The use of I statements make the speaker take responsibility for their emotions, seeing as we only know how WE are feeling. When we are able to own and share our emotions we create a bridge to allow the person we are speaking with to then get in touch with their feelings.
When you focus on what you are feeling, rather than on your opinion on the matter (as is conveyed through a “You” statement), it is non-threatening and inoffensive. So the person is less likely to jump to DEFCON 5 and they’re more likely to listen to what you have to say. It is important to identify what you are feeling rather than what the other person is doing, or how you perceive their intentions.
If someone says something that offends you, tell them, but state it in an “I” statement, not a “You” statement.

Open door policy
My door will always be open for my students when they need me. I will continuously make them aware of that. Despite my generally sarcastic nature I genuinely care about the physical and psychological well-being of my students. I will not tolerate any discriminatory action being taken against them and I hope that they would feel comfortable to speak with me about any issues that are having.

In Closingeffingeducate

Additional Resources:
This one gets all the “yeses”!: http://www.upworthy.com/when-men-were-edited-out-of-these-images-it-revealed-a-powerful-truth-about-equality?c=ufb1
A pretty solid list of the different types of privilege: http://amptoons.com/blog/2006/09/26/a-list-of-privilege-lists/
Table data: https://www.raceforward.org/videos/systemic-racism
Strategies to reduce the influence of implicit bias: http://www.ncsc.org/~/media/Files/PDF/Topics/Gender%20and%20Racial%20Fairness/IB_Strategies_033012.ashx
Awesome blog: https://aspoonfulofsuga.wordpress.com/2013/11/07/ask-a-black-guy-friendly-edition-why-do-black-people-keep-bringing-up-slavery/
Times article – Gender bias: http://time.com/3705454/teachers-biases-girls-education/
Educational comics provided by: http://everydayfeminism.com/2014/09/white-privilege-explained/

 

 

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18 Comments

  1. Thanks to you now I will think twice before wearing seat belts (lol kidding) . Anyway, I do think providing the definitions was a brilliant idea as it allows the reader to know the differences between each of these terms (I know way tooooo many people who either don’t know these terms or they mix them up- also thanks for explaining implicit and explicit bias- as i mention that in my blog as well). I also liked that you brought it back to the classroom and gave some great pointers on what to do (an important aspect you mention “I” statement, not a “You” statement is something I try to do with my friends and with students I interact with). Great Post 🙂

  2. The illustrations were priceless, your comments were insightful and recommendations were right on. Thank you for sharing.

    • I’m glad you enjoyed the illustrations! I can’t read anything without pictures my fiancé calls me an adult child ¬_¬
      I’m really glad you enjoyed the comments too! I appreciate you reading my post!

  3. Awesome blog post Alex! Is this why you ride motorcycles… no need for seat belts?! (I don’t think they are required?) I particularly like the last section with advice for teachers to provide a comfortable environment for all. As teachers not only do we need to educate our students, but also ourselves on what their (student’s) needs are. I also really like the “I” versus “You” statements.

    Thanks for posting!
    Turner

  4. This is a wonderful post! Thanks for putting all the effort on describing so many things that we need to be aware of and know! Also, the way you were able to end up talking about inclusive pedagogy I think is really good.

    Thanks for sharing!

  5. I’d like to write a tome about this post, and nearly every sentence would begin with “Thanks”! (Least relevant to the inclusive pedagogy discussion but never far from my lived experience as a short woman — it’s not just the seat belts that are dangerous. The airbags can literally kill you if you fall below the “average” weight and height.) What I really want to know though, is where the social sharing buttons are so I can tweet this out so the rest of the world can benefit from your street talk?

    • Widgets have just been added. Whether or not they actually work is an entirely different question. Looking forward to your feedback on that front. 🙂

  6. Yay! Just yay!
    That is all. 🙂

  7. Awesome post! You bring excellent points. That calendar from University of Missouri is excellent; it makes me think of when I have to explain about the Three Kings day or Good Friday. I loved the “I” and “You” statements, I will try to implement them in my future classes and in discussions in general.

    Empathy is my main take away from your blog, I believe the key to start moving forward and to be more inclusive is having empathy and place ourselves in other people’s lives and backgrounds.

    Excellent post!

    • Thanks! I’m glad you enjoyed it! Empathy – that’s the word I was looking for but couldn’t find! 🙂 Spot on! Thanks for that and for reading!

  8. Wow, you really put a lot of work in this post and it reflects in the content. I totally agree with you on the points about being aware, educate and start discussions on this topic. I think that it is crucial to recognize that there are differences due to race, socio-economical status, sexual orientations, etc. and that by talking about these differences is how we start being inclusive in pedagogy.

  9. Alex, thank you for sharing your comments. Here is an alternative thought on “For example being hungry really stinks (Snickers said it best, “you’re not you when you’re hungry”) but it’s one of the main components several observed religious days of multiple groups.”. From the perspective of Islam, if somebody justify to smell bad because of the religious reasons, one can easily challenge that person by referring to various scripts in Quran. Being clean, and putting emphasis on cleanness is one of the principles of Islam. Even in the very first days of introducing the practice of fasting, there were practices offered to hinder body odors. And in today’s world, there are tons of practices to not to stink. So, from Islam’s perspective, you don’t need to take the burden of bad smell, just go ahead and tell the other person that being stinky is not socially appropriate. Best, yesim.

    • Hey Yesim,
      Thank you for your insightful feedback. I’ve never looked that deeply into the Quran before and had no idea how precise Islam is about cleanliness. I believe the point of my “Snickers” quote was to demonstrate the need for empathy across all groups. People may smell bad for a variety of different reasons. They may not necessarily chose to smell bad; maybe they have a medical condition that causes body odor, like some sort of metabolic disorder. Perhaps they’re really depressed and couldn’t bring themselves to shower. I think it is extremely important to be aware of what people may be experiencing, even if you haven’t experienced it for yourself.
      I have a fiancé that gets hangry**. When we started dating I would keep granola bars in the glove compartment of my car, my backpack, and HER backpack. It’s all about understanding how the other person feels, I didn’t want someone I cared about being unhappy due to a situation that could have been prevented, so I did something about it.
      ** Hangry(adj): A state of anger caused by lack of food; hunger causing negative change in emotional state.

      I do agree with you on your point of not having to deal with bad smells, but sometimes those things cannot be helped. Do you have a suggestion on what those people should do?

  10. This is really a fantastic blog!!! In fact the bias is all-around us. Not only students are treated differently by teacher, sometime teachers are treated differently by students. Like your pictures of VT presidents, student’s also prefer to sit in the lecture of a white male rather than non-white female, especially when the female is petite (definitely not the case in our CP class ^-^).

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